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The face of excavation at a rundown phosphate mining factory on the high plateau. The export of phosphate has been the mainstay of the Nauruan cash economy for around 100 years. However, the mining processes used to extract it have caused severe environmental damage, land degradation and destroyed natural habitats. This part of the island (known as "Topside") is now a vast wasteland covered only by limestone pinnacles, rocks and scrub.